Monday, January 5, 2009

Guava Leaves Extract (Component in making soap) treatment for acne [Bathing Soap]

Chapter I:

Background of the study:



Nowadays people are focusing in herbal plants especially those who are common in the environment. One of the example is the guava plant (Psidium guajava Linn). Based on research this plant is good for healing and treating wounds and other skin infections. So in my research I wan't to make a bathing soap out of it, cause I know that it is effective. People, researchers, scientists were focusing to medicinal plants. They want to prove that there are plants that are more effective against diseases especially in skin. This study refers to a plant that can be made into a bathing soap and improves its quality while using this plant (guava leaves). I want people to handle easily in treating their skin disorders. Instead of boiling the leaves, now it’s easy to apply. Boiling takes much time.



Statement of the Problem:



I stated that Guava leaves extract is good for skin. Based on my research, it has many constituents that is good for skin.



It answers the following questions:



* Is there any constituents of guave leaves that is good for skin?

* What are those?

* It can really treat skin disorders/ Acne?



Hypothesis:



* Guava leaves is good treatment for acne.

* It has many components or constituents.

* Constituents that is good for skin disorders, especially for acnies.



Significance of the Study:



You can make a bathing soap with guave leaves extract as treatment for acne. This plant is very common to our environment, and aside of its avaibility; it is easy to cultivate. It contains many components for healing skin disorders.

Scope and Limitation:

The study of guava leaves and getting their extract is often useful. It has the ability to treat, cure, disinfect skin disorders and capable of being a herbal plant for acnes.


Definition of Terms

Astringent- antiseptic properties
Decoction- infusion of fresh leaves used for wound cleaning and skin to prevent infection and to facilitate healing. Good for skin disorders.
Volatile- a substance that changes into a vapor at a relatively low temperature.
Eugenol- oily liquid from doves. (C10H12O2)
Cloves- aromatic spice from the dried flower bud of a tropical tree.
Tannin- a brownish or yellowish substance found in plants and used in astringents.
Saponins- soap from plants; any group of chemical substances extracted from plants that form a soapy lather mixed with water and are used to make soap and detergent.
Amydalin- resin used in paints and adhesives.
Resin- yellow or brown color and organic substance from plants.
Malic Acid- acid from fruit; a colorless crystalline solid found in fruits such as apples. (C4H6O5)
Aldehydes- organic compound; a highly reactive organic compound produced by the oxidation of an alcohol and having a CHO group especially the acetaldehyde.
Ash- the powdery substance that is left when something has been burnt.

Guava:
Scientific Name: Psidium Guajava


Chapter II: Review Related Literature:

Database File for:
GUAVA (Psidium guajava)

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Family: Myrtaceae Genus: Psidium Species: guajava Common names: Guava, goiaba, guayaba, djamboe, djambu, goavier, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, perala, bayawas, dipajaya jambu, petokal, tokal, guave, guavenbaum, guayave, banjiro, goiabeiro, guayabo, guyaba, goeajaaba, guave, goejaba, kuawa, abas, jambu batu, bayabas, pichi, posh, enandi Part Used: Fruit, leaf, bark From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:
GUAVA
HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
Main Actions
Other Actions
Standard Dosage
stops diarrhea
depresses CNS
Leaves
kills bacteria
lowers blood pressure
Decoction: 1 cup 1-3
kills fungi
reduces blood sugar
times daily
kills yeast
constricts blood vessels

kills amebas
promotes menstruation

relieves pain


fights free radicals


reduces spasms


supports heart


Called guayaba in Spanish-speaking countries and goiaba in Brazil, guava is a common shade tree or shrub in door-yard gardens in the tropics. It provides shade while the guava fruits are eaten fresh and made into drinks, ice cream, and preserves. In the richness of the Amazon, guava fruits often grow well beyond the size of tennis balls on well-branched trees or shrubs reaching up to 20 m high. Cultivated varieties average about 10 meters in height and produce lemon-sized fruits. The tree is easily identified by its distinctive thin, smooth, copper-colored bark that flakes off, showing a greenish layer beneath.
Guava fruit today is considered minor in terms of commercial world trade but is widely grown in the tropics, enriching the diet of hundreds of millions of people in the tropics of the world. Guava has spread widely throughout the tropics because it thrives in a variety of soils, propagates easily, and bears fruit relatively quickly. The fruits contain numerous seeds that can produce a mature fruit-bearing plant within four years. In the Amazon rainforest guava fruits are much enjoyed by birds and monkeys, which disperse guava seeds in their droppings and cause spontaneous clumps of guava trees to grow throughout the rainforest.
TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES
Guava may have been domesticated in Peru several thousand years ago; Peruvian archaeological sites have revealed guava seeds found stored with beans, corn, squash, and other cultivated plants. Guava fruit is still enjoyed as a sweet treat by indigenous peoples throughout the rainforest, and the leaves and bark of the guava tree have a long history of medicinal uses that are still employed today.
The Tikuna Indians decoct the leaves or bark of guava as a cure for diarrhea. In fact, an infusion or decoction made from the leaves and/or bark has been used by many tribes for diarrhea and dysentery throughout the Amazon, and Indians also employ it for sore throats, vomiting, stomach upsets, for vertigo, and to regulate menstrual periods. Tender leaves are chewed for bleeding gums and bad breath, and it is said to prevent hangovers (if chewed before drinking). Indians throughout the Amazon gargle a leaf decoction for mouth sores, bleeding gums, or use it as a douche for vaginal discharge and to tighten and tone vaginal walls after childbirth. A decoction of the bark and/or leaves or a flower infusion is used topically for wounds, ulcers and skin sores. Flowers are also mashed and applied to painful eye conditions such as sun strain, conjunctivitis or eye injuries.
Centuries ago, European adventurers, traders, and missionaries in the Amazon Basin took the much enjoyed and tasty fruits to Africa, Asia, India, and the Pacific tropical regions, so that it is now cultivated throughout the tropical regions of the world. Commercially the fruit is consumed fresh or used in the making of jams, jellies, paste or hardened jam, and juice. Guava leaves are in the Dutch Pharmacopoeia for the treatment of diarrhea, and the leaves are still used for diarrhea in Latin America, Central and West Africa, and Southeast Asia. In Peruvian herbal medicine systems today the plant is employed for diarrhea, gastroenteritis, intestinal worms, gastric disorders, vomiting, coughs, vaginal discharges, menstrual pain and hemorrhages, and edema. In Brazil guava is considered an astringent drying agent and diuretic and is used for the same conditions as in Peru. A decoction is also recommended as a gargle for sore throats, laryngitis and swelling of the mouth, and used externally for skin ulcers, and vaginal irritation and discharges.
PLANT CHEMICALS
Guava is rich in tannins, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber and fatty acids. Guava fruit is higher in vitamin C than citrus (80 mg of vitamin C in 100 g of fruit) and contains appreciable amounts of vitamin A as well. Guava fruits are also a good source of pectin - a dietary fiber. The leaves of guava are rich in flavonoids, in particular, quercetin. Much of guava's therapeutic activity is attributed to these flavonoids. The flavonoids have demonstrated antibacterial activity. Quercetin is thought to contribute to the anti-diarrhea effect of guava; it is able to relax intestinal smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions. In addition, other flavonoids and triterpenes in guava leaves show antispasmodic activity. Guava also has antioxidant properties which is attributed to the polyphenols found in the leaves.
Guava's main plant chemicals include: alanine, alpha-humulene, alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-selinene, amritoside, araban, arabinose, arabopyranosides, arjunolic acid, aromadendrene, ascorbic acid, ascorbigen, asiatic acid, aspartic acid, avicularin, benzaldehyde, butanal, carotenoids, caryophyllene, catechol-tannins, crataegolic acid, D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl octanoate, essential oils, flavonoids, gallic acid, glutamic acid, goreishic acid, guafine, guavacoumaric acid, guaijavarin, guajiverine, guajivolic acid, guajavolide, guavenoic acid, guajavanoic acid, histidine, hyperin, ilelatifol D, isoneriucoumaric acid, isoquercetin, jacoumaric acid, lectins, leucocyanidins, limonene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lysine, mecocyanin, myricetin, myristic acid, nerolidiol, obtusinin, octanol, oleanolic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pectin, polyphenols, psidiolic acid, quercetin, quercitrin, serine, sesquiguavene, tannins, terpenes, and ursolic acid.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH
The long history of guava's use has led modern-day researchers to study guava extracts. Its traditional use for diarrhea, gastroenteritis and other digestive complaints has been validated in numerous clinical studies. A plant drug has even been developed from guava leaves (standardized to its quercetin content) for the treatment of acute diarrhea. Human clinical trials with the drug indicate its effectiveness in treating diarrhea in adults. Guava leaf extracts and fruit juice has also been clinically studied for infantile diarrhea. In a clinical study with 62 infants with infantile rotaviral enteritis, the recovery rate was 3 days (87.1%) in those treated with guava, and diarrhea ceased in a shorter time period than controls. It was concluded in the study that guava has "good curative effect on infantile rotaviral enteritis."
Guava has many different properties that contribute to its antidiarrheal effect: it has been documented with pronounced antibacterial, antiamebic and antispasmodic activity. It has also shown to have a tranquilizing effect on intestinal smooth muscle, inhibit chemical processes found in diarrhea and aid in the re-absorption of water in the intestines. In other research, an alcoholic leaf extract was reported to have a morphine-like effect, by inhibiting the gastrointestinal release of chemicals in acute diarrheal disease. This morphine-like effect was thought to be related to the chemical quercetin. In addition, lectin chemicals in guava were shown to bind to E-coli (a common diarrhea-causing organism), preventing its adhesion to the intestinal wall and thus preventing infection (and resulting diarrhea).
The effective use of guava in diarrhea, dysentery and gastroenteritis can also be related to guava's documented antibacterial properties. Bark and leaf extracts have shown to have in vitro toxic action against numerous bacteria. In several studies guava showed significant antibacterial activity against such common diarrhea-causing bacteria as Staphylococcus, Shigella, Salmonella, Bacillus, E. coli, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas. It has also demonstrated antifungal, anti-yeast (candida), anti-amebic, and antimalarial actions.
In a recent study with guinea pigs (in 2003) Brazilian researchers reported that guava leaf extracts have numerous effects on the cardiovascular system which might be beneficial in treating irregular heat beat (arrhythmia). Previous research indicated guava leaf provided antioxidant effects beneficial to the heart, heart protective properties, and improved myocardial function. In two randomized human studies, the consumption of guava fruit for 12 weeks was shown to reduce blood pressure by an average 8 points, decrease total cholesterol levels by 9%, decrease triglycerides by almost 8%, and increase "good" HDL cholesterol by 8%. The effects were attributed to the high potassium and soluble fiber content of the fruit (however 1-2 pounds of fruit was consumed daily by the study subjects to obtain these results!). In other animal studies guava leaf extracts have evidenced analgesic, sedative, and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity, as well as a cough suppressant actions. The fruit or fruit juice has been documented to lower blood sugar levels in normal and diabetic animals and humans. Most of these studies confirm the plant's many uses in tropical herbal medicine systems.
CURRENT PRACTICAL USES
Guava, known as the poor man's apple of the tropics, has a long history of traditional use, much of which is being validated by scientific research. It is a wonderful natural remedy for diarrhea - safe enough even for young children. For infants and children under the age of 2, just a cup daily of guava fruit juice is helpful for diarrhea. For older children and adults, a cup once or twice daily of a leaf decoction is the tropical herbal medicine standard. Though not widely available in the U.S. market, tea-cut and powdered leaves can be obtained from larger health food stores or suppliers of bulk botanicals. Newer in the market are guava leaf extracts that are used in various herbal formulas for a myriad of purposes; from herbal antibiotic and diarrhea formulas to bowel health and weight loss formulas. Toxicity studies with rats and mice, as well as controlled human studies show both the leaf and fruit to be safe and without side effects.
GUAVA PLANT SUMMARY
Main Preparation Method: decoction
Main Actions (in order): antidysenteric, antiseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart)
Main Uses:
for dysentery (bacterial and amebic), diarrhea, colic, and infantile rotavirus enteritis
as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial for internal and external bacterial, fungal, candidal, and amebic infections
to tone, balance, protect and strengthen the heart (and for arrhythmia and some heart diseases)
as a cough suppressant, analgesic (pain-reliever), and febrifuge (reduces fever) for colds, flu, sore throat, etc
as a topical remedy for ear and eye infections Properties/Actions Documented by Research: amebicide, analgesic (pain-reliever), antibacterial, anticandidal, antidysenteric, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antiulcerous, cardiodepressant, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), central nervous system depressant, cough suppressant, gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric tract), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), sedative, vasoconstrictor
Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antiseptic, astringent, blood cleanser, digestive stimulant, menstrual stimulant, nervine (balances/calms nerves), vermifuge (expels worms)
Cautions: It has a cardiac depressant effect and is contraindicated in some heart conditions.
Traditional Preparation: The fruit and juice is freely consumed for its great taste, nutritional benefit and nutrient content, as well as an effective children's diarrhea remedy. The leaves are prepared in a standard decoction and dosages are generally 1 cup 1-3 times daily.
Contraindications:
Guava has recently demonstrated cardiac depressant activity and should be used with caution by those on heart medications.
Guava fruit has shown to lower blood sugar levels and it should be avoided by people with hypoglycemia.
Drug Interactions: None reported, however excessive or chronic consumption of guava may potentiate some heart medications.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
Amazonia
for diarrhea, dysentery, menstrual disorders, stomachache, vertigo
Brazil
for anorexia, cholera, diarrhea, digestive problems, dysentery, gastric insufficiency, inflamed mucous membranes, laryngitis, mouth(swelling), skin problems, sore throat, ulcers, vaginal discharge
Cuba
for colds, dysentery, dyspepsia
Ghana
coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, toothache
Haiti
for dysentery, diarrhea, epilepsy, itch, piles, scabies, skin sores, sore throat, stomachache, wounds, and as an antiseptic and astringent
India
for anorexia, cerebral ailments, childbirth, chorea, convulsions, epilepsy, nephritis
Malaya
for dermatosis, diarrhea, epilepsy, hysteria, menstrual disorders
Mexico
for deafness, diarrhea, itch, scabies, stomachache, swelling, ulcer, worms, wounds
Peru
for conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhea, digestive problems, dysentery, edema, gout, hemorrhages, gastroenteritis, gastritis, lung problems, PMS, shock, vaginal discharge, vertigo, vomiting, worms
Philippines
for sores, wounds, and as an astringent
Trinidad
bacterial infections, blood cleansing, diarrhea, dysentery
Elsewhere
for anorexia, aches, bacterial infections, boils, bowel disorders, bronchitis, catarrh, cholera, chorea, colds, colic, convulsions, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, edema, epilepsy, fever, gingivitis, hemorrhoids, itch, jaundice, menstrual problems, nausea, nephritis, respiratory problems, rheumatism, scabies, sore throat, spasms, sprains, stomach problems, swelling, tonic, toothache, ulcers, worms, wounds, and as an antiseptic and astringent
References/Footnotes:
Conde Garcia, E. A., et al. “Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the guinea pig atrium.” Braz. J. of Med. & Biol. Res. 2003; 36: 661-668.
Suntornsuk, L., et al. “Quantitation of vitamin C content in herbal juice using direct titration.” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2002; 28(5): 849-55.
Beckstrom-Sternberg, S. M., et al. “The phytochemical database.” (ACEDB version 4.3-Data version July 1994.) National Germplasm Resources Laboratory (NGRL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Jimenez-Escrig, A., et al. “Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001; 49(11): 5489-93.
Smith, Nigel J. H., et al. Tropical Forests and their Crops. London: Cornell University Press. 1992.
Arima, H., et al. “Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) and their structural elucidation.” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2002; 66(8): 1727-30.
Morales, M. A., et al. “Calcium-antagonist effect of quercetin and its relation with the spasmolytic properties of Psidium guajava L.” Arch. Med. Res. 1994; 25(1): 17-21.
Lozoya, X., et al. “Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle.” Arch. Med. Res. 1994; 25(1): 11-5.
Begum, S., et al. “Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava.” Phytochemistry 2002; 61(4): 399-403.
Lozoya, X., et al. “Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 83(1-2): 19-24.
Wei, L., et al. “Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L.” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2000; 20(12): 893-5.
Tona, L., et al. “Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.” Phytomedicine 1999; 6(1): 59-66.
Lozoya, X., et al. “Model of intraluminal perfusion of the guinea pig ileum in vitro in the study of the antidiarrheal properties of the guava (Psidium guajava).” Arch. Invest. Med. (Mex). 1990; 21(2): 155-62.
Almeida, C. E., et al. “Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine.” Rev. Saude Publica. 1995; 29(6): 428-33.
Lin, J., et al. “Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of some medicinal plants used by Zulu traditional healers.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(1): 53-6.
Lutterodt, G. D. “Inhibition of Microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 37(2): 151-7.
Lutterodt, G. D. “Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease.” J. Ethnopharmcol. 1989; 25(3): 235-47.
Coutino-Rodriguez, R., et al, “Lectins in fruits having gastrointestinal activity: their participation in the hemagglutinating property of Escherichia coli O157:H7.” Arch. Med. Res. 2001; 32(4): 251-7.
Abdelrahim, S. I., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L.” Fitoterapia 2002; 73(7-8): 713-5.
Holetz, F. B., et al. “Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 2002; 97(7): 1027-31.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 55-73.
Garcia, S., et al, “Inhibition of growth, enterotoxin production, and spore formation of Clostridium perfringens by extracts of medicinal plants.” J. Food Prot. 2002; 65(10): 1667-9.
Tona, L., et al. “Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(1): 31-8.
Tona, L., et al. “Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 61(1): 57-65.
Nundkumar, N., et al. “Studies on the antiplasmodial properties of some South African medicinal plants used as antimalarial remedies in Zulu folk medicine.” Methods Find Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 2002; 24(7): 397-401.
Yamashiro, S., et al. “Cardioprotective effects of extracts from Psidium guajava L. and Limonium wrigth II, Okinawan medicinal plants, against ischemia-reperfusion injury in perfused rat hearts.” Pharmacology 2003; 67(3): 128-35.
Singh, R. B., et al. “Can guava fruit intake decrease blood pressure and blood lipids?” J. Hum Hypertens. 1993; 7(1): 33-8.
Singh, R. B., et al. “Effects of guava intake on serum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and on systemic blood pressure.” Am. J. Cardiol. 1992; 70(15): 1287-91.
Shaheen, H. M., et al. “Effect of Psidium guajava leaves on some aspects of the central nervous system in mice.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(2): 107-11.
Lutterodt, G. D., et al. “Effects on mice locomotor activity of a narcotic-like principle from Psidium guajava leaves.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 24(2-3): 219-31.
Jaiarj, P., et al. “Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(2): 203-12.
Cheng, J. T., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of guava juice in mice and human subjects.” Am. J. Clin. Med. 1983; 11(1-4): 74-6.
Roman-Ramos, R., et al. "Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995.
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Chapter III:


Methology

Materials:

Platform beam balance

beaker

molder

NaOH ( Sodium Hydroxide) (60g) (150 ml) solution

800g of guava leaves

oil

water

stirring rod

cloth

pot

Decoction of Guava Leaves:


First Step: you should prepare an 800g of guava leaves. Second, put it in a basin for washing to remove the dust and some small insects found in leaves. After washing, prepare the pot and pour it with of water, then boil it within 15 minutes to get more extract. Get the extract and put it in a beaker. You must obtained 400 ml of guava leaves extract.

Soap Making:

Prepare (NaOH) Sodium Hydroxide 150ml solution and the oil. The guava leaves extract is also prepared. Mix it with the NaOH, oil and the extract between 2-3 minutes by continuous stirring until foamy emulsion will produce and transfer it to the molder.

Reminders:
· Do not inhale the fumes ( cover your nose)
· Do not touch directly the NaOH
· Do not surprise in tremendous heat produce.

After placing to the molder, cover it with cloth. Demolding the cloth be 3 days after.



Applying to Acne:

You will need four volunteers; 2 for the commercial soap; 2 for the guava leaves extract. Soap the acne, leave it within 3 minutes. Rinse it with water and dry it with a soft towel. Use it within 1 week/7 days.


Acne’s Symptoms Days of the Week

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Itchiness

2.Color

3. Size

4. Number of Acne

5. Softness of skin







Reference Cited:


Http: //psidium+guajava+Linn.blogspot.com
Psidium Guavaja Linn (Scientific Name of Guava)
October 2002
Ruel Ford

Www. Encarta.com
Guava Fruit
September 2005
James Crick




www.yahoo.com

Skin Disorders (Acne)
Yahoo.com publication 2007
Apple Marasig

Chapter IV

Results and Discussions

- This chapter shows the results, ratings and comments of some people who tries to use and observe this product ( Guava Leaves Extract use in making soap Treatment for Acne).

Legend:

* Very Good

/ Good

x Poor

Trial 1:


Person Quality Texture Comments

1. Keisa / x the quality is good but the texture is poor.hehe
2. Jorie x x very poor
3. Carie / / i lyk da product
4.Donna Belle / / No comments
5. Nard / / No comments
6. Ivy x x Better luck nxt tym.hehehe


Trial 2.


Person Quality texture Comments
1. Jamian * / U improve the quality and texture
2. Myrna * * Nice Work
3. Haru / / N0h Comments
4. Reina x x I don't like it
5. Marzha / / Nyz one hap..
6. Renani * / not well good. needs improvement


Trial 3.

Person Quality Texture Commemts
1. Pimps / / Good
2. Ronzz * * I wnt ds product..
3. Amelita / / i's effective!!
4. Rian / / Effective!!!
5. Jay Anne * * Awesome!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
6. Jim Miguel * / Nice W0rkz....

Chapter V:

Recommendations:

20 comments:

  1. its very gud information .. can u pls give some more information abt microscopy of leaf with photographs

    ReplyDelete
  2. ..can i know your full name??, because i'm looking for my "related investigatory project" and you are the one i've been choose. tnx

    ReplyDelete
  3. ..pls. i'm a high school student too..
    from pampanga..tnx

    ReplyDelete
  4. hello, can i get your whole name? I used your investigatory project as rrl. :D thanks! need it ASAP. :D

    ReplyDelete
  5. do you have the Flow chart & Statistical tool?

    ReplyDelete
  6. ;)we use this as our I.P !! thanks GUYS !
    need it ASAP ;))))))

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello
    Thanks for this nice posting.... i will try my best in this way.
    Thanks

    http://homeremedypimples.org/

    ReplyDelete
  8. hello :-) thank you for this!!! it helps me lot .

    ReplyDelete
  9. ahmmmm....is there an abstract for this investigatory project??...its really the only lacking for this ip...

    ReplyDelete
  10. very good but there are wrong grammar

    ReplyDelete
  11. hi.
    your I.P is amazing. we chose it for our S.I.P chemistry project. ahm, we are just curious if all the information above is all we need? nothing more, nothing less ??
    if there are other information, we need it A.S.A.P, please.
    thank you ! Lots of love !
    Godbless !

    ReplyDelete
  12. this was a choice for my cousin's IP but it was alter to apple extract soap..hahaha..good job guys!!!

    ReplyDelete
  13. ...your I.P is amazing. we chose it for our S.I.P chemistry project. tnx alot..

    ReplyDelete
  14. can i ask something ?>>
    whre do we can buy a sodium hydroxide ?? because i chose this I.P to make it our IP also .. please answer me ..

    ReplyDelete
  15. pwede po ba gumawa kayo neto
    The Feasibility of Malunggay leaves (Moringa Oleifera)

    and Chili fruit ( Capsicum Frutescens) as Pesticide

    ReplyDelete